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变频器的控制方式有几种?

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变频器的控制方式有几种?

发布日期:2022-02-18 作者: 点击:

一、变频控制装置的V/f恒定控制:

V/f控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)是(shi)在(zai)(zai)改变电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)源频(pin)率(lv)的(de)(de)(de)(de)同时改变电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)源的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)压,使电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)磁(ci)通保持一定(ding)(ding),在(zai)(zai)较(jiao)宽的(de)(de)(de)(de)调速(su)范(fan)围(wei)内(nei),电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)效(xiao)率(lv),功率(lv)因(yin)数不(bu)下降。因(yin)为(wei)(wei)是(shi)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)(dian)压(Voltage)与频(pin)率(lv)(Frequency)之比,称为(wei)(wei)V/f控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。恒定(ding)(ding)V/f控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)存在(zai)(zai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要问(wen)题是(shi)低(di)速(su)性能较(jiao)差(cha)(cha),转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)极(ji)低(di)时,电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)无法克服较(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)静摩擦力,不(bu)能恰(qia)当的(de)(de)(de)(de)调整电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)补(bu)偿和适应(ying)负载(zai)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)矩(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变化;其次是(shi)无法准确的(de)(de)(de)(de)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实际(ji)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)。由(you)于恒V/f变频(pin)器(qi)是(shi)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)开环控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),由(you)异步电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械特性图可(ke)知,设定(ding)(ding)值(zhi)为(wei)(wei)定(ding)(ding)子(zi)频(pin)率(lv)也就(jiu)是(shi)理(li)想空载(zai)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su),而电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实际(ji)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)由(you)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)差(cha)(cha)率(lv)所决定(ding)(ding),所以V/f恒定(ding)(ding)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)方式存在(zai)(zai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)误差(cha)(cha)不(bu)能控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),故无法准确控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实际(ji)转(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)。

二(er)、转差频率控制:

转差(cha)频率(lv)(lv)是施加(jia)于(yu)电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)的(de)交流(liu)电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)频率(lv)(lv)与电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)速度的(de)差(cha)频率(lv)(lv)。根据异(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)稳定数学模(mo)型可知,当频率(lv)(lv)一定时,异(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)动机(ji)的(de)电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)转矩正比于(yu)转差(cha)率(lv)(lv),机(ji)械特(te)性(xing)为(wei)直线。

转(zhuan)差(cha)频(pin)率(lv)控(kong)制就(jiu)是通过控(kong)制转(zhuan)差(cha)频(pin)率(lv)来控(kong)制转(zhuan)矩(ju)和(he)电(dian)流。转(zhuan)差(cha)频(pin)率(lv)控(kong)制需要检出(chu)电(dian)动机(ji)的转(zhuan)速(su),构(gou)成速(su)度闭(bi)环,速(su)度调(diao)节(jie)器(qi)的输出(chu)为(wei)转(zhuan)差(cha)频(pin)率(lv),然后以电(dian)动机(ji)速(su)度与(yu)转(zhuan)差(cha)频(pin)率(lv)之(zhi)和(he)作为(wei)变频(pin)器(qi)的给定频(pin)率(lv)。与(yu)V/f控(kong)制相(xiang)比,其(qi)加(jia)减速(su)特(te)性和(he)限制过电(dian)流的能(neng)力得(de)到(dao)提高。另(ling)外,它有速(su)度调(diao)节(jie)器(qi),利用速(su)度反馈构(gou)成闭(bi)环控(kong)制,速(su)度的静态(tai)误(wu)差(cha)小。然而要达(da)到(dao)自(zi)动控(kong)制系统稳态(tai)控(kong)制,还达(da)不(bu)到(dao)良好的动态(tai)性能(neng)。

三、变频控(kong)制(zhi)装置的矢(shi)量(liang)控(kong)制(zhi)矢(shi)量(liang)控(kong)制(zhi),也称(cheng)磁场定向控(kong)制(zhi)

它是(shi)(shi)70年代初由西德F.Blasschke等(deng)人首先(xian)提(ti)出,以直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)和(he)(he)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)比较的(de)(de)方法(fa)阐述了这(zhei)一(yi)原(yuan)理。由此(ci)开(kai)创了交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)和(he)(he)等(deng)效直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)先(xian)河。矢(shi)量控(kong)制变频调速(su)的(de)(de)做法(fa)是(shi)(shi)将(jiang)异(yi)(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)在三相坐(zuo)标(biao)系下的(de)(de)定子(zi)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)Ia、Ib、Ic。通(tong)过(guo)三相-二相变换,等(deng)效成(cheng)两相静止坐(zuo)标(biao)系下的(de)(de)交(jiao)(jiao)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)Ia1、Ib1,再通(tong)过(guo)按(an)转子(zi)磁场定向旋(xuan)转变换,等(deng)效成(cheng)同步(bu)旋(xuan)转坐(zuo)标(biao)系下的(de)(de)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)Im1、It1(Im1相当于(yu)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)励(li)磁电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu);It1相当于(yu)直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)枢电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)),然后模仿直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)控(kong)制方法(fa),求(qiu)得直(zhi)(zhi)流(liu)(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)控(kong)制量,经过(guo)相应的(de)(de)坐(zuo)标(biao)反变换实现(xian)对异(yi)(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)控(kong)制。矢(shi)量控(kong)制方法(fa)的(de)(de)出现(xian),使异(yi)(yi)步(bu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)变频调速(su)在电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)调速(su)领(ling)域(yu)里(li)全方位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)处于(yu)优势地位(wei)(wei)。但是(shi)(shi),矢(shi)量控(kong)制技术需要对电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)参数(shu)进行正确(que)估(gu)算,如(ru)何提(ti)高参数(shu)的(de)(de)准(zhun)确(que)性是(shi)(shi)一(yi)直(zhi)(zhi)研(yan)究的(de)(de)话题。

变频控制装置

四、直(zhi)接转矩控制

1985年,德(de)国鲁(lu)尔大学的(de)(de)DePenbrock教授首次提出了直接(jie)(jie)转矩控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)理论(lun),该技(ji)术在很大程度上(shang)解决了矢量控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)不(bu)足,它(ta)不(bu)是通过控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)流(liu),磁(ci)(ci)链等(deng)量间接(jie)(jie)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)转矩,而是把转矩直接(jie)(jie)作(zuo)为被控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)量来控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。转矩控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)优越性(xing)在于(yu):转矩控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)是控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)定(ding)子磁(ci)(ci)链,在本(ben)质(zhi)上(shang)并不(bu)需(xu)要转速信(xin)息(xi),控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)上(shang)对除定(ding)子电(dian)阻外(wai)的(de)(de)所有电(dian)机参数变化(hua)鲁(lu)棒(bang)性(xing)良好;所引入的(de)(de)定(ding)子磁(ci)(ci)链观测器能很容易估算(suan)出同步速度信(xin)息(xi),因而能方便的(de)(de)实(shi)现无(wu)速度传感器,这种控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)被称为无(wu)速度传感器直接(jie)(jie)转矩控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。


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